Welcome to the Knowledge Centre!

Whether you are new to the game and curious about how it all works,
or a veteran who knows it all,
the Knowledge Centre has what you are looking for.

Rules of Golf

As the governing body of golf in Canada, Golf Canada holds the exclusive right to govern, publish and distribute the Rules of Golf in Canada.

The Rules are typically updated every four years through the work of the R&A and the United States Golf Association. A joint committee of these associations, on which the Chair of Golf Canada’s Rules and Amateur Status Committee sits, is charged with revising, modernizing and improving the Rules of Golf. These two documents form the complete Rules of Golf that are used universally throughout the world of golf.

For clubs or committees in charge of competitions, the Conditions of Competition and Standard Local Rules that Golf Canada implements at all championships is posted for your reference. In addition, a list of local rules that should be considered is available on the Golf Canada website.

2019 Rules Modernization Initiative

As the National Sport Federation and governing body of golf in Canada, Golf Canada, in conjunction with the R&A and the USGA, have unveiled the 2019 Rules of Golf. This joint initiative was designed to modernize the Rules and make them easier to understand and apply.

Full details about the Rules Modernization Initiative

Overview of the Rules Modernization Initiative

Frequently Asked Questions of implementation in Canada

Summary of Major Changes

2019 Rules of Golf Publications

‘Player’s Edition of the Rules of Golf’: An abridged, user-friendly set of the Rules with shorter sentences, commonly used phrases, and diagrams. Written in the “second person,” The Player’s Edition is intended to be the primary publication for golfers. 

Click here to view the 2019 Player’s Edition.

Purchase Player’s Edition!

‘Full Rules of Golf’: The full edition of the Rules will be written in the third person and will include illustrations. The Rules of Golf is intended to be the primary publication for officials and is expected Golf Club Committees and Referees will use the publication as their primary Rules of Golf resource.

Click here to view the 2019 Rules of Golf.

Purchase Rules of Golf book!

The Official Guide to the Rules of Golf: This “guidebook” replaces the Decisions book and will contain information to best support committees and officials. It includes interpretations on the Rules, Committee procedures (available local rules and information on establishing the terms of the competition), and the Modified Rules of Golf for Players with Disabilities. It is a “long-form” resource document intended as a supplementary publication. 

Click here to view the 2019 Official Guide.

The official guide will be available for purchase through the Golf Canada Shop in October.


Smartphone Apps

Please use the links below to view the official R&A or USGA  Rules of Golf apps.

R&A Rules of Golf App – iOS

R&A Rules of Golf App – Android

USGA Rules of Golf App – iOS

USGA Rules of Golf App – Android

Online Quizzes

Think you know the 2019 Rules of Golf? Test your knowledge using the below links to online quizzes.

R&A 2019 Rules of Golf Quiz

USGA 2019 Rules of Golf Quiz

Visit the Golf Canada Rule of Golf Page to view additional resources, including info graphs and links to additional rule modernization items.

Rules Education

In addition to publishing the Rules of Golf, Golf Canada is committed to train and educate all golfers that could ultimately lead to national certification as a Referee.

New for 2019, Golf Canada will be adopting the R&A’s Rules Education system. One of the main objectives of the Rules Modernization Initiative was to create consistency around the world in many facets of the Rules of Golf, including educating and training referees. The exams that Golf Canada will use and the designation by marks achieved will be consistent throughout the countries allied to the R&A, such as Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

While Golf Canada traditionally has employed a four-level system, the R&A’s Rules Education program consists of a three-tiered approach. In order to align the programs, Golf Canada’s current Levels 1 and 2 will be consolidated into just one level (the new Level 1). We will maintain separate programs for individuals to continue through our Rules Education Pathway at the provincial and national level, which will be the new Level 2 and Level 3.

The chart below compares the Levels from 2018 to what will be in place for 2019:

2018 2019
Level 1 (Online) Level 1 (Online)
Level 2 (Online)
Level 3 (Provincial) Level 2 (Provincial)
Level 4 (National) Level 3 (National)


Level 1 provides an interesting and easy way to learn the basics of the Rules of Golf. This level will focus on Etiquette, the principle definitions and commonly encountered situations on the course. As part of the Level 1 program, students will be able to test their knowledge by taking the review questions at the end of each section before attempting the online Level 1 Exam.

Level 1 Rules Academy


Level 2 (provincial certification) seminars will be conducted by provincial golf associations, and the curriculum will begin to look at the more important playing Rules in detail. Some of the complexities that are found in the Decisions book are introduced along while also implementing on-course demonstrations. Level 2 (Provincial) will be designed for individuals with an involvement in tournament administration, or a desire to have such an involvement.

Use the links below to register now!

Level 2 – Calgary (March 15-17)
Level 2 – Edmonton (March 29-31)


Level 3 (national certification) will consist of a three-day seminar run by Golf Canada. It serves to give guidance and advice on refereeing at the highest level. This program is intended for experienced referees who wish to improve both their technical and practical knowledge as a referee.

For more information on Level 3, and a listing of seminar dates and locations, visit Golf Canada


The List of conforming drivers and conforming golf balls are universal lists used by all golf associations.

  1. List of conforming driver heads
  2. List of conforming golf balls

Ask a Rules Expert

To ask a rules question, please email us at smrules@golfcanada.ca.

If you have a rules question regarding a competition currently taking place (the competition has not closed), then you may wish to use the Competition Hotline.

To contact Golf Canada for a ruling during a competition please call Adam Helmer, Director of Rules and Competitions at 416-450-6374.

If your call is not answered immediately, please leave a detailed message including your name, title (Rules Chair, Professional, etc.) phone number where you can be contacted and a description of the incident requiring a ruling. Your call will be returned as soon as possible.

Player's Corner

Games to Play

Golf can be a repetitive sport. Especially when you default to individual stroke play every time you step onto the first tee. Mixing up the format can be a fun way to introduce beginner’s to the sport, and renew your love of the game as well!

Did you know that matchplay and alternate shot are very popular in Europe? It gives you the feeling of playing against your opponent(s) and less against the course, it also improves pace of play. If that doesn’t interest you, take a look at the games listed below. Don’t be afraid to make up your own game!

Battle Golf

Is your favourite game missing? Send it to info@albertagolf.org

Etiquette 101


The Spirit of the Game

Unlike many sports, golf is played, for the most part, without the supervision of a referee or umpire. The game relies on the integrity of the individual to show consideration for other players and to abide by the Rules. All players should conduct themselves in a disciplined manner, demonstrating courtesy and sportsmanship at all times, irrespective of how competitive they may be. This is the spirit of the game of golf.


Players should ensure no one is standing close by or in a position to be hit by the club, the ball or any stones, pebbles, twigs or the like when they make a stroke or practice swing. Players should not play until the players in front are out of range. Players should always alert greenstaff nearby or ahead when they are about to make a stroke that might endanger them. If a player plays a ball in a direction where there is a danger of hitting someone, he should immediately shout a warning. The traditional word of warning in such a situation is “fore.”

Consideration for Other Players

No disturbance or distraction. Players should always show consideration for other players on the course and should not disturb their play by moving, talking or making any unnecessary noise. Players should ensure any electronic device taken onto the course do not distract other players. On the teeing ground, a player should not tee his ball until it is his turn to play. Players should not stand close to or directly behind the ball, or directly behind the hole, when a player is about to play.

On the putting green, players should not stand on another player’s line of putt or when he is making a stroke, cast a shadow over his line of putt. Players should remain on or close to the putting green until all other players in the group have holed out.

In stroke play, a player who is acting as a marker should, if necessary, on the way to the next tee, check the score with the player concerned and record it.

Pace of Play

Players should play at a good pace. The Committee may establish pace of play guidelines that all players should follow. It is a group’s responsibility to keep up with the group in front. If it loses a clear hole and it is delaying the group behind, it should invite the group behind to play through, irrespective of the number of players in that group.

Players should be ready to play as soon as it is their turn to play. When playing on or near the putting green, they should leave their bags or carts in such a position as will enable quick movement off the green and towards the next tee. When the play of a hole has been completed, players should immediately leave the putting green.

If a player believes his ball may be lost outside a water hazard or is out of bounds, to save time, he should play a provisional ball. Players searching for a ball should signal the players in the group behind them to play through as soon as it becomes apparent that the ball will not easily be found. They should not search for five minutes before doing so. Having allowed the group behind to play through, they should not continue play until that group has passed and is out of range.

Unless otherwise determined by the Committee, priority on the course is determined by a group’s pace of play. Any group playing a whole round is entitled to pass a group playing a shorter round.

Care of the Course

Bunkers Before leaving a bunker, players should carefully fill up and smooth over all holes and footprints made by them and any nearby made by others. If a rake is within reasonable proximity of the bunker, the rake should be used for this purpose. View Bunker Etiquette Animation

Repair of Divots, Ball-Marks and Damage by Shoes Players should carefully repair any divot holes made by them and any damage to the putting green made by the impact of a ball (whether or not made by the player himself). On completion of the hole by all players in the group, damage to the putting green caused by golf shoes should be repaired.

Preventing Unnecessary Damage Players should avoid causing damage to the course by removing divots when taking practice swings or by hitting the head of a club into the ground, whether in anger or for any other reason. Players should ensure that no damage is done to the putting green when putting down bags or the flagstick. In order to avoid damaging the hole, players and caddies should not stand too close to the hole and should take care during the handling of the flagstick and the removal of a ball from the hole. The head of a club should not be used to remove a ball from the hole. Players should not lean on their clubs when on the putting green, particularly when removing the ball from the hole. The flagstick should be properly replaced in the hole before players leave the putting green. Local notices regulating the movement of golf carts should be strictly observed.

Conclusion; Penalties for Breach

If players follow the guidelines in this Section, it will make the game more enjoyable for everyone. If a player consistently disregards these guidelines during a round or over a period of time to the detriment of others, it is recommended that the Committee consider taking appropriate disciplinary action against the offending player. Such action may, for example, include prohibiting play for a limited time on the course or in a certain number of competitions. This is considered to be justifiable in terms of protecting the interest of the majority of golfers who wish to play in accordance with these guidelines. In the case of a serious breach of Etiquette, the Committee may disqualify a player under Rule 33-7.

Handicap System


Golf Canada is the authoritative body for the purposes of establishing and maintaining a uniform handicap system for golf clubs in Canada in co-operation with the provincial golf associations.

The purpose of the Golf Canada Handicap System is to make the game of golf more enjoyable for golfers by providing a means of measuring one’s performance and progress and to enable golfers of differing abilities to compete on an equitable basis.

Through this system, each golfer establishes an “Golf Canada Handicap Factor” which is a numerical measurement of a player’s potential (not actual) scoring ability on a course of standard difficulty.

The Handicap Factor is calculated using the best 10 of the player’s last 20 rounds and updated with each new round played. The Handicap Factor travels with the golfer from course to course and is adjusted up or down depending on the length and difficulty of the course played, resulting in a “Course Handicap”. The Course Handicap is the number of strokes a golfer receives from a specific set of tees at the course played and represents the number of strokes he would require to play equitably against a “scratch” golfer (a golfer with a Handicap Factor of “0.0′). The more difficult the golf course, the more strokes the golfer receives and vice versa.

The relative difficulty of a golf course is determined jointly by Golf Canada and the provincial golf association using the Golf Canada Course and Slope Rating System. Specially trained Course Rating Teams evaluate the difficulty of a golf course based on such variables as length and a number of obstacle factors (e.g. topography, bunkers, water hazards, severity of rough, etc).

Only Golf Canada member golf clubs are permitted to use the Golf Canada Handicap System and Golf Canada Course Rating System and related trademarks and service marks and must do so in a manner that preserves the integrity and reliability of these systems. All rights to use these systems and related trademarks and service marks terminate should the golf club cease to be a member in good standing with Golf Canada.

2018-19 Manual Updates & Changes
Golf Canada Handicap Manual
Handicapping – All You Need To Know
USGA Handicapping
Before You Post – Poster
Duties and Responsibilities
Frequently Used Sections In Brief

Golf Canada Handicap System Seminars

The Member Club Handicap License Agreement stipulates that every Alberta Golf / Golf Canada Member Club must have a representative attend a handicap seminar and complete the certification exam.

We host several Handicap System Certification Seminars each season in order to educate and help clubs and individuals achieve certification and compliance. These Seminars are a more in-depth look into Handicapping and Course Rating and will give attendees a thorough knowledge of the Golf Canada Handicap and Course Rating systems. The Handicap Seminars are beneficial for club members, Handicap Committee members, Golf Professionals, Superintendents, General Managers, and others interested in learning more about Handicapping in general.

These seminars are typically scheduled in the evenings and include a copy of the Golf Canada Handicap Manual and other relevant Handicap materials. Attendees who participate in the Seminars take a short exam to become Golf Canada Handicap System Certified. Upon successful completion of the Seminar and exam, a certificate of completion is sent to the newly certified Official.

Golf Canada offers Online Handicap Seminars available to complete at any time. The seminar will take approximately four hours, but you are able to bookmark your place and come back to it at your own convenience.

Online Handicap Seminar

Equitable Stroke Control

Equitable Stroke Control (ESC) is the downward adjustment of individual hole scores for handicap purposes in order to make Handicap Factors more representative of a player’s potential scoring ability. It sets a maximum number that a player can post on any hole depending on the player’s Course Handicap.

How it works:

  • 9 or Less Course Handicap – Max of 2 over par
  • 10-19 Course Handicap – Max Score of 7
  • 20-29 Course Handicap – Max Score of 8
  • 30-39 Course Handicap – Max Score of 9
  • 40 + Course Handicap – Max Score of 10

Course Rating

The purpose of the Golf Canada Course Rating System is to measure and rate the relative difficulty of golf courses across Canada so that a player’s Handicap Factor is accurate and transportable from golf course to golf course. The Course Rating System takes into account factors that affect the playing difficulty of a golf course including yardage, effective playing length and number of obstacle factors such as topography, elevation, doglegs, prevailing wind, bunkering, etc.

After a thorough study of the Course and Slope Rating System developed by the United States Golf Association (USGA), Golf Canada approved and adopted the system for Canada in January 1995.

The Golf Canada Course Rating System consists of two basic elements:

Golf Canada Course Rating – the evaluation of the playing difficulty of a course for scratch golfers under normal course and weather conditions expressed as number of strokes (e.g. 72.5).

Golf Canada Slope Rating – the evaluation of the relative difficulty of a course for players who are not scratch golfers compared to the difficulty of the course for scratch golfers. The lowest Slope Rating is 55 and the highest 155. A course of standard playing difficulty will have a Slope Rating of 113.

Every member golf course should have an Golf Canada Course Rating and Slope Rating for each set of tees at the course. These ratings are used in the calculation of the Golf Canada Handicap Factor and for determining a player’s Course Handicap for a given round. Accuracy and consistency are the keys to effective course rating. Alberta Golf rates golf courses in accordance with the system and this ensures that Course Ratings are accurate and uniform from coast to coast. Only an Alberta Golf team of course raters may rate golf courses.

Alberta Golf Archives

Mens History Book

Ladies History Book


The Alberta Golf Hall of Fame honours the legacies of men and women who have made a difference on the Alberta golf scene either as a skilled player, through distinguished service, or as a builder. Please click the Player and Distinguished Service Inductees links to view the current members of the Alberta Golf Hall of Fame and their distinguished careers. Nomination forms must be submitted by June 1st each year for consideration. Please contact us to receive a copy of the updated nomination forms.

Player Inductees:

Keith Alexander
Duane Barr
Glenn Gray
Pat Heisler
Buddy Loftus
Henry Martell
Rae Milligan Simpson
Marilyn O’Connor
Kareen Qually Nelson
Doug Silverberg
Betty Stanhope-Cole
Bill Tait
Ken Tamke
Frank Van Dornick
Diane Williams
Robert L. Wylie
David Schultz

Distinguished Service Inductees:

Jack Brooks
Thelma Coutts
Ken Heywood
Tony Krivoblocki
Fran Marsden
A.H (Babe) McAvoy
Frank McBride
Sid Puddicombe
Lola Rozsa
Ken Sharatt
Jean Smeland
Bill Sturgeon
Sylvia Blasken
Brent Ellenton
Florin Bergh
Les Swelin
Martin Blake


Club Resources